The syllabus will be a work in progress. Please check often for a new updated version.
Period 4: Global Interactions, c. 1450 to c. 1750
Key Concept 4.2: New Forms of Social Organization and Modes of Production.
Part I: Traditional peasant agriculture increased and changed, plantations expanded, and demand for labor increased. These changes both fed and responded to growing global demand for raw materials and finished products.
Pgs: 462-463, 483-486, 534-540, 558-568
Key Terms: Competition between European states, The Seven Years’ War (The French and Indian War), British Hegemony; Silver: the mining and global significance of, encomienda system, resistance to Spain, engenho, slave labor in Brazil, tobacco and other cash crops, indentured labor, slavery in North America, Christian missionaries, the Virgin of Guadalupe; The Atlantic Slave Trade: slavery in Africa, Islamic slave trade, early slave trade, Triangular Trade, Middle Passage (Read: Olaudah Equiano’s account on page 562), volume of the slave trade, social effects of the slave trade, gender and slavery, political effects of the slave trade, The African Diaspora, plantation societies, cash crops, regional differences, resistance to slavery, slave revolts (esp. in Haiti), African languages, religions, music, cultural traditions, Olaudah Equiano, end of the slave trade, and abolition of slavery.
Part II: As new social and political elites changed, they also restructured new ethnic, racial, and gender hierarchies.
Pgs: 511-512, 600-604
Key Terms: putting-out system, serfdom in Russia, Adam Smith, nuclear family; The Mughal Empire, Babur, Akbar, Aurangzeb, The Emperors and Islam, Steppe Traditions, Women and Politics.
Key Concept 4.3: State Consolidation and Imperial Expansion.
Part I: Rulers used a variety of methods to legitimize and consolidate their power. Pgs. 419-421, 500-507, 547-558, 587
Key Terms: Mexica Society: social structure, warriors, women, priests, religion, Huitzilopochtli; The New Monarchs, Spanish Inquisition, English Civil War, Glorious Revolution, Dutch Republic, Cardinal Richelieu, Louis XIII, Louis XIV, Peter I, Catherine II, The Peace of Westphalia, The Balance of Power; The Songhay Empire, The Kingdom of Kongo, The Kingdom of Ndongo, Queen Nzinga, Angola, South Africa, Religion in Sub-Saharan Africa, Social Change in Early Modern Africa; economic and social change in Japan;
Part II: Imperial expansion relied on the increased use of gunpowder, cannons, and armed trade to establish large empires in both hemispheres.
Pgs: 481-483, 529-532, 572-577, 596-600, 606
Key Terms: Foundations of the Russian Empire in Asia, Siberia; Spanish Colonial Administration, Portuguese Brazil, Settler Colonies in North America: Foundation of Colonies, Colonial Government, Relations with Indigenous Peoples, Conflict; The Ming Dynasty, the Great Wall, Ming Decline, Ming Collapse, The Qing Dynasty, The Manchus, Kangxi, Qianlong, The Son of Heaven, Scholar-Bureaucrats, Civil Service Exams and Chinese Society; The Ottoman Empire, Osman, expansion, Mehmed the Conqueror, Süleyman the Magnificent, The Safavids, Twelver Shiism, Shah Abbas the Great; millet communities
Part III: Competition over trade routes (such as Omani-European rivalry in the Indian Ocean or piracy in the Caribbean), state rivalries (such as the Thirty Years War or the Ottoman-Safavid conflict) and local resistance (such as bread riots) all provided significant challenges to state consolidation and expansion.
Pgs: 483, 497-499, 599-600
Key Terms: The Seven Years’ War, British Hegemony; Religious Wars, The Thirty Years’ War, The Consolidation of Sovereign States, Charles V, Imperial Fragmentation;
The Battle of Chaldiran.
Part IV: The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
Key Terms: the Ptolemaic Universe, planetary movement, the Copernican Universe, Galileo Galilei, Isaac Newton, Émilie du Châtelet, science and society, Voltaire, Deism, read primary sources by philosophers
Test on Key Concept 4.2 and 4.3: December 13 & 14
Short Answer Prompts for 4.2 and 4.3
Short Answer #1
Answer parts A, B. and C
A. Explain ONE economic cause of the growth of the Atlantic slave trade.
B. Explain ONE social effect of the Atlantic slave trade on Africa.
C. Explain ONE economic effect of the Atlantic slave trade in the Americas
Short-answer questions #2:
Answer parts A, B, and C:
A. Other than geography and language, cite and explain ONE difference between British and French settlements in the Americas.
B. Other than geography and language, cite and explain ONE difference between Spanish and Portuguese settlements in the Americas.
C. Other than geography and language, cite and explain ONE difference between Dutch and French settlements in the Americas.
Short-answer question #3
Answer parts A, B. and C:
A. Identify and explain ONE aspect of the Scientific Revolution that would support the interpretation that it was more important than either the Renaissance or the Reformation.
B. Identify and explain ONE aspect of the Renaissance that supports the interpretation that it was more important than the Scientific Revolution.
C. Identify and explain ONE aspect of the Reformation that supports the interpretation that it was more important than the Scientific Revolution.
Short Answer #4
“Having on one occasion asked my father [Akbar] the reason why he had forbidden any one to prevent or interfere with the building of these haunts of idolatry [Hindu temples], his reply . . . : ‘I find myself a powerful monarch, the shadow of God upon earth. I have seen that he bestows the blessings of his gracious providence upon all his creatures without distinction. Ill should I discharge the duties of my exalted stations, were I to withhold my compassions and indulgence from any of those entrusted to my charge. With all of the human race, with all of God’s creatures, I am at peace: why then should I permit myself, under any consideration, to be the cause of molestation or aggression to any one? Besides, are not five parts in six of mankind either Hindus or aliens to the faith; and were I to be governed by motives of the kind suggested in your inquiry, what alternative do I have but to put them all to death! I have thought it therefore my wisest plan to let these men alone.’ “
Jahangir, Mughal emperor from 1605 to 1627, Memoirs
Answer parts A and B.
A. The passage shows Akbar’s tolerance toward people of other faiths. Provide TWO specific examples of how Akbar displayed such tolerance.
B. Briefly explain ONE example of tolerance and its results in the early days of the Ottoman Empire.
Additional notes on Russia:
Ivan IV and Siberia:
"Wanting to expand east to control fur trade, Ivan IV allowed the Stroganovs, major Russian landowners, to hire bands of fierce peasant warriors known as Cossacks to fight the local tribes and the Siberian khan. The Stroganovs' forces were successful, gaining control of the Volga River, which flows into the Caspian Sea. Russia's expansion eastward shared many features with the movement of Europeans westward in North America. In both cases, the fur trade was important, and as people advanced they spread Christianity. And in both cases, indigenous people put up resistance, but succumbed to guns and diseases."
Catherine the Great and Pugachev's Rebellion:
"A Cossack known as Yemelyan Pugachev initiated a peasant rebellion against Catherine the Great in 1774. Falsely claiming to be Catherine's murdered husband, Peter III, Pugachev gathered a following of discontented peasants, different ethnic groups, and fellow Cossacks. At one point, these groups controlled the territory between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains. Within a year, though, Pugachev was captured and executed. The Pugachev Rebellion only served to increase Catherine's oppression of the peasants in return for the support of the nobles to help her avoid future revolts."